empire de charlemagne

There was, however, a certain ambiguity about quasi-inheritance. [18], In 750, Pepin was elected by an assembly of the Franks, anointed by the archbishop, and then raised to the office of king. His reign is often referred to as the Carolingian Renaissance because of the flowering of scholarship, literature, art and architecture that characterise it. La consolidation d'une structure géopolitique forte des Pyrénées à l'Elbe, centrée sur l'espace entre Loire et Rhin, manifeste l'émergence d'une réalité géographique nouvelle : l'Europe. Seeing an opportunity to extend Christendom and his own power and believing the Saxons to be a fully conquered nation, Charlemagne agreed to go to Spain. The charges were exaggerated, but Tassilo was deposed anyway and put in the monastery of Jumièges. When Charlemagne incorporated much of Central Europe, he brought the Frankish state face to face with the Avars and Slavs in the southeast. Records name only Carloman, Gisela, and three short-lived children named Pepin, Chrothais and Adelais as his younger siblings. [47] Odo's price for salvation from the Saracens was incorporation into the Frankish kingdom, a decision that was repugnant to him and also to his heirs. Préhistoire : l'Homme à la conquête de l'Asie, Pénurie de CO2 en Europe : la bière rationnée au Royaume-Uni, L’Homme de Néandertal était cannibale, On a marché sur la Lune : les secrets de Tintin. In his first campaign, in 773, Charlemagne forced the Engrians to submit and cut down an Irminsul pillar near Paderborn. Nonetheless, the Pope took the extraordinary step of creating one. [81], The Frankish commander Eric of Friuli wanted to extend his dominion by conquering the Littoral Croat Duchy. En bref : l'Espagne abrite les plus vieilles peintures rupestres. The Throne of Charlemagne (German: Karlsthron or Aachener Königsthron, "Royal Throne of Aachen") is a throne erected in the 790s by Charlemagne, as one of the fittings of his palatine chapel in Aachen (today's Aachen Cathedral) and placed in the Octagon of the church.Until 1531, it served as the coronation throne of the Kings of Germany, being used at a total of thirty-one coronations. During this war, the East Frisians between the Lauwers and the Weser joined the Saxons in revolt and were finally subdued. In the video game Age of Empires II, Charlemagne featured as a throwing axeman. Charlemagne's eldest son, Pepin the Hunchback, was much occupied with Saracens in Italy. Charlemagne was buried at the cathedral in Aachen. Therefore, storytellers in England adapted legends of Charlemagne and his 12 Peers to the Arthurian tales. The Moors returned twice more, each time suffering defeat at Charles' hands—at the River Berre near Narbonne in 737[46] and in the Dauphiné in 740. The office was treated as joint property: one Mayorship held by two brothers jointly. Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pepin the Short (714 â€“ 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 â€“ 12 July 783), daughter of Caribert of Laon. They took Bordeaux and were advancing towards Tours when Odo, powerless to stop them, appealed to his arch-enemy, Charles Martel, mayor of the Franks. Nevertheless, Charlemagne … [34] The Duke of Spoleto signed a treaty. During these days, he would not get out of bed when a quarrel occurred in his kingdom, instead summoning all members of the situation into his bedroom to be given orders. Search. Hunald was forced to flee to the court of Duke Lupus II of Gascony. He was supported in this appeal by Carloman, Charles' brother. However, Charlemagne acquired other Slavic areas, including Bohemia, Moravia, Austria and Croatia.[75]. [151] His beatification has been acknowledged as cultus confirmed and is celebrated on 28 January.[85][152]. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799. In 1867, an equestrian statue of Charlemagne was made by Louis Jehotte and was inaugurated in 1868 on the Boulevard d'Avroy in Liège. His authority extended over church and state. For the Pope, then, there was "no living Emperor at that time"[95] though Henri Pirenne[96] disputes this saying that the coronation "was not in any sense explained by the fact that at this moment a woman was reigning in Constantinople". However, he does not benefit from Bearded Axe, meaning a post-Imperial Age Elite Throwing Axemanends up having more attack, armor, and range than Charlemagne. Einhard explains that "the honour" was usually "given by the people" to the distinguished, but Pepin the Great and his brother Carloman the Wise received it as though hereditary, as had their father, Charles Martel. According to this article all Europeans are descended from Charlemagne. Start studying The Empire of Charlemagne. For Charles the Younger he designated Austrasia and Neustria, Saxony, Burgundy and Thuringia. Instead, he and the Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia took up Pippin's system for pragmatic reasons, notably a shortage of the metal. Nous avons tous une certaine idée de son règne. According to this view, also, the origin of the empire is to be explained by specific local circumstances rather than by overarching theories. The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of the Lombards in Italy from 774. Alternative birth years for Charlemagne include 742 and 748. [45] Saracen troops gradually massed in Septimania and in 732 an army under Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi advanced into Vasconia, and Odo was defeated at the Battle of the River Garonne. He turned to leave Iberia, but as he was passing through the Pass of Roncesvalles one of the most famous events of his reign occurred. Carolingian minuscule was created partly under the patronage of Charlemagne. [21] This date supports the concept that Charlemagne was technically an illegitimate child, although that is not mentioned by Einhard in either since he was born out of wedlock; Pepin and Bertrada were bound by a private contract or Friedelehe[6] at the time of his birth, but did not marry until 744.[23]. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church viewed Charlemagne less favourably due to his support of the filioque and the Pope's having preferred him as emperor over the Byzantine Empire's first female monarch, Irene of Athens. This was a joint kingship with a Basque Duke, Lupus I. Lupus is the Latin translation of Basque Otsoa, "wolf". Charlemagne[n 1], du latin Carolus Magnus, ou Charles Ier dit « le Grand », né à une date inconnue (vraisemblablement durant l'année 742, voire 747 ou 748, peut-être le 2 avril), mort le 28 janvier 814 à Aix-la-Chapelle[4], est un roi des Francs et empereur. Charlemagne, soucieux de la conservation de ces textes anciens, ordonna que dans les monastères et églises soient créés des écoles et des ateliers de copie. Unissant dans un même empire des peuples disparates, Charlemagne apparaît chez certains (Victor Hugo, notamment) comme le précurseur d'une Europe bien administrée. The younger of the two, Louis, became King of Aquitaine. 3 - Charlemagne et ses comtes (Bible de Charles le Chauve, IXe siècle, BNF, Paris) DOC. Bâti par le premier souverain de la deuxième dynastie des rois de France, Pépin le Bref, c'est cependant son fils, Charlemagne, couronné empereur par le pape Léon III en 800, qui donne son nom à la dynastie des Carolingiens. The epithet Carolus Magnus was widely used, leading to numerous translations into many languages of Europe. [111] A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Emperor Otto III, would claim that he and Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: Charlemagne, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. Many historians consider Charlemagne (Charles) to have been illegitimate, although some state that this is arguable,[26] because Pepin did not marry Bertrada until 744, which was after Charles' birth; this status did not exclude him from the succession.[27][28][29]. [107] The Second Council of Nicaea reintroduced the veneration of icons under Empress Irene. Merci pour votre inscription.Heureux de vous compter parmi nos lecteurs ! He is depicted as a Throwing Axeman with a higher amount of hit points. Many translated example sentences containing "empire de Charlemagne" – English-French dictionary and search engine for English translations. During that time, Dalmatian Croatia was ruled by Duke ViÅ¡eslav of Croatia. In the General Capitulary of the Missi written in 802 A.D. it was revealed that Charlemagne chose from among his nobles the wisest and most prudent in order to send them throughout his kingdom to become ambassadors and missionaries to develop … Many Saxons were baptised as Christians. One of the great medieval literary cycles, the Charlemagne cycle or the Matter of France, centres on his deeds—the Emperor with the Flowing Beard of Roland fame—and his historical commander of the border with Brittany, Roland, and the 12 paladins. There Charlemagne crowned his son as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. 4) Jean TULARD, Le Grand Empire, Albin Michel, 1982, p.25. [129][130], Charlemagne expanded the reform Church's programme unlike his father, Pippin, and uncle, Carloman. In his official charters, Charles preferred the style Karolus serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus magnus pacificus imperator Romanum gubernans imperium[104] ("Charles, most serene Augustus crowned by God, the great, peaceful emperor ruling the Roman empire") to the more direct Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans"). Evidently, interim decisions could be made by the Pope, which ultimately needed to be ratified using an assembly of the people that met annually. Church historians of the period wrote universally in Latin, regardless of native language. However, the latter had married Liutperga, a daughter of Desiderius, king of Lombardy. En 773, Charlemagne fait la conquête de la Lombardie (Italie septentrionale), où s'était réfugiée la famille de son frère qu'il fait emprisonner. Before any open hostilities could be declared, however, Carloman died on 5 December 771, apparently of natural causes. Charlemagne est mort en 800. Charlemagne - Charlemagne - Military campaigns: The first three decades of Charlemagne’s reign were dominated by military campaigns, which were prompted by a variety of factors: the need to defend his realm against external foes and internal separatists, a desire for conquest and booty, a keen sense of opportunities offered by changing power relationships, and an urge to spread … Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. Charles went to war, leading an army to Bordeaux, where he set up a fort at Fronsac. He used to wear the national, that is to say, the Frank, dress—next his skin a linen shirt and linen breeches, and above these a tunic fringed with silk; while hose fastened by bands covered his lower limbs, and shoes his feet, and he protected his shoulders and chest in winter by a close-fitting coat of otter or marten skins. This defence, last employed in the Danish-Prussian War of 1864, was at its beginning a 30 km (19 mi) long earthenwork rampart. Towards the end, he dragged one leg. [162], Actor and singer Christopher Lee's symphonic metal concept album Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross[163] and its heavy metal follow-up Charlemagne: The Omens of Death feature the events of Charlemagne's life.[164]. [140][141][142], He also spoke Latin and had at least some understanding of Greek, according to Einhard (Grecam vero melius intellegere quam pronuntiare poterat, "he could understand Greek better than he could speak it"). [68] As of 794, a Frankish vassal, the Basque lord Belasko (al-Galashki, 'the Gaul') ruled Álava, but Pamplona remained under Cordovan and local control up to 806. The Danevirke protected Danish land and gave Godfred the opportunity to harass Frisia and Flanders with pirate raids. Early in Charlemagne's rule he tacitly allowed Jews to monopolise money lending. What might have been acceptable in the fifth century had become provoking and insulting to the Franks in the eighth century. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEinhard,_putative741–829 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFEinhard,_putative741–829 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFEinhard2007 (. Charles, unusually, had himself crowned with the Iron Crown and made the magnates of Lombardy pay homage to him at Pavia. His religious policy reflected his capacity to respond positively to forces of change working in his world. He did not tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished Pepin the Hunchback to Prüm Abbey because the young man had joined a rebellion against him. [112] In 1215 Emperor Frederick II re-interred him in a casket made of gold and silver known as the Karlsschrein. Medieval Women. Their co-conspirator, Arechis, was not subdued, and Adelchis, their candidate in Byzantium, never left that city. Thrasuco, his successor, led his men to conquest over the Nordalbingians and handed their leaders over to Charlemagne, who honoured him. [78] The Transdanubian territories became integral parts of the Frankish realm, which was abolished by the Magyars in 899–900. Pourquoi y a-t-il eu une guerre civile en Espagne ? La division de l'Empire franc entre les petits-fils de Charlemagne, à la suite de la mort de son fils, le roi Louis I , dit le Débonnaire, ou Louis le Pieux, donne naissance à l'ouest à la Francie occid… Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope Zachary, asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal power. Charlemagne rushed back from Saxony and defeated the Duke of Friuli in battle; the Duke was slain. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. The language, in either case, suggests that there were not two inheritances, which would have created distinct kings ruling over distinct kingdoms, but a single joint inheritance and a joint kingship tenanted by two equal kings, Charles and his brother Carloman. La légende permet de distinguer :- le royaume de Charlemagne en 768 (Gaule, Germanie, etc.) Ibn al-QÅ«á¹­iyya, who had another, much longer name, must have been relying to some degree on family oral tradition. Charlemagne - Charlemagne - Religious reform: Charlemagne’s military conquests, diplomacy, and efforts to impose a unified administration on his kingdom were impressive proof of his ability to play the part of a traditional Frankish king. [78] In 805, the Avar khagan, who had already been baptised, went to Aachen to ask permission to settle with his people south-eastward from Vienna. Roi des Francs de 768 à 814, Charlemagne fut sacré empereur d'Occident en 800. It is awarded annually to "personages of merit who have promoted the idea of western unity by their political, economic and literary endeavours. 1. When the family of Charles ceased to produce worthy heirs, the Pope gladly crowned whichever Italian magnate could best protect him from his local enemies. The loyalty of the Agilolfings was perpetually in question, but Pepin exacted numerous oaths of loyalty from Tassilo. Par la transmission de la dignité impériale à son fils Louis le Pieux, Charlemagne inscrit l’empire dans la succession dynastique. – deutsche Sektion, "Einhard: The Wars of Charlemagne, c. 770–814", "Charlemagne's Imperial Coronation: The Enigma of Sources and Use to Historians", "St Paulinus of Aquileia, Bishop (c. 726–804)", "Die Geburt zweier Staaten – Die Straßburger Eide vom 14. These and other disputes led to the eventual later split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054.[9][d]. Grifo perished in combat in the Battle of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne while Drogo was hunted down and taken into custody.[35]. He reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. A la mort de Charlemagne, en 814, son fils Louis le Pieux lui succède.Le voilà donc à la tête d’un immense empire. The earliest surviving planctus, the Planctus de obitu Karoli, was composed by a monk of Bobbio, which he had patronised. L'Empire de Charlemagne est avant tout un empire franc de part ses origines et ses traditions. In January, he fell ill with pleurisy. Stressing his opposition, the Pope had the original text inscribed in Greek and Latin on two heavy shields that were displayed in Saint Peter's Basilica.[133][134][135]. 20 Nov 2017 - Charlemagne (742-814), Carolus Magnus, also known as Karl der Grosse, Charles the Great or Charles I was the King of the Franks from 768, the King of Italy from 774, and from 800 the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The city of Aachen has, since 1949, awarded an international prize (called the Karlspreis der Stadt Aachen) in honour of Charlemagne. He then crossed Engria, where he defeated the Saxons again. Charlemagne kept his daughters at home with him and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages (though he originally condoned an engagement between his eldest daughter Rotrude and Constantine VI of Byzantium, this engagement was annulled when Rotrude was 11). [120] Letters have been credited to him that invited Jews to settle in his kingdom.[121][122][123]. [157], Charlemagne appears in Adelchi, the second tragedy by Italian writer Alessandro Manzoni, first published in 1822.[158]. [81] Duke Vojnomir of Lower Pannonia aided Charlemagne, and the Franks made themselves overlords over the Croats of northern Dalmatia, Slavonia and Pannonia. La carte montre les étapes de la constitution de l’Empire de Charlemagne. Charlemagne est un personnage incontournable des programmes scolaires. The pope handed down his decision in 749, decreeing that it was better for Pepin to be called king, as he had the powers of high office as Mayor, so as not to confuse the hierarchy. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. By her he had: Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. [7] As sole ruler, he continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. Inauguration of the statue of Charlemagne, Liège, 26 July 1868, Art installation Mein Karl by Ottmar Hörl on Katschhof place of Aachen, Stained-glass of Charlemagne sitting on his throne in the railway station of Metz, representing the imperial protection over Metz during the German annexation of the city, Statue of Charlemagne near Notre-Dame Cathedral, Paris, King of the Franks, King of Italy, and Holy Roman Emperor. Pourquoi lançait-on des croisades au Moyen Âge ? Charlemagne even had contact with the caliphal court in Baghdad. Early Life of Charlemagne. [g][h] The elder of these two, Carloman, was made the king of Italy, taking the Iron Crown that his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pepin"[34][56] (not to be confused with Charlemagne's eldest, possibly illegitimate son, Pepin the Hunchback). The only part of the Empire that Louis was not promised was Italy, which Charlemagne specifically bestowed upon Pippin's illegitimate son Bernard.[137]. The empire contained a number of regions known as marches, which were effectively buffer zones with other states. After the death of his father, Hunald I allied himself with free Lombardy. Quelles sont les grandes découvertes de la Renaissance ? Later Old French historians dubbed him Charles le Magne (Charles the Great),[10] becoming Charlemagne in English after the Norman conquest of England which changed the English language. Age Of Charlemagne - What is it? The army marched to the Baltic before turning around and marching to the Rhine, winning much booty with no harassment. The middle kingdom had broken up by 890 and partly absorbed into the Western kingdom (later France) and the Eastern kingdom (Germany) and the rest developing into smaller "buffer" nations that exist between France and Germany to this day, namely Benelux and Switzerland. The last conquest brought them to the mouth of the Ebro and gave them raiding access to Valencia, prompting the Emir al-Hakam I to recognise their conquests in 813. B. Bachrach (2002), pp. These are analogous to, and inspired the myth of, the Knights of the Round Table of King Arthur's court. [102], According to Ohnsorge, for a long time, it had been the custom of Byzantium to designate the German princes as spiritual "sons" of the Romans. Oxford: Ecclesiastical History Society, 1978. Part of Charlemagne's success as a warrior, an administrator and ruler can be traced to his admiration for learning and education. Colorie l'empire de Charlemagne en violet et complète la légende. "[97], With Charlemagne's coronation, therefore, "the Roman Empire remained, so far as either of them [Charlemagne and Leo] were concerned, one and indivisible, with Charles as its Emperor", though there can have been "little doubt that the coronation, with all that it implied, would be furiously contested in Constantinople". The Basque Duke, in turn, seems to have contributed decisively or schemed the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (referred to as "Basque treachery"). His legacy is immense and his empire spanned a region closely resembling that of the founding states of the European Union, so could also be considered the creator of modern Europe. He was eventually released, but Charlemagne, enraged at the compromise, decided to depose him and appointed his trustee William of Gellone. The iconoclasm of the Byzantine Isaurian Dynasty was endorsed by the Franks. As the Basques had no law of joint inheritance but relied on primogeniture, Lupus in effect founded a hereditary dynasty of Basque rulers of an expanded Aquitaine.[41]. Charlemagne is quoted by Dr Henry Jones, Sr. in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Pippin and Duke Eric of Friuli continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. Under the Franks, it was a royal prerogative but could be delegated. The pan-European nature of Charlemagne's influence is indicated by the origins of many of the men who worked for him: Alcuin, an Anglo-Saxon from York; Theodulf, a Visigoth, probably from Septimania; Paul the Deacon, Lombard; Italians Peter of Pisa and Paulinus of Aquileia; and Franks Angilbert, Angilram, Einhard and Waldo of Reichenau. The council was not recognised by Charlemagne since no Frankish emissaries had been invited, even though Charlemagne ruled more than three provinces of the classical Roman empire and was considered equal in rank to the Byzantine emperor. Charlemagne fostered a system where the Christian majority could procure credit through Jewish constituents. An Engrian rebellion followed in 796, but the presence of Charlemagne, Christian Saxons and Slavs quickly crushed it. Among the contingents of the Frankish army were Bavarians under Tassilo III, Duke of Bavaria, an Agilofing, the hereditary Bavarian ducal family. [87], A number of modern scholars, however,[88] suggest that Charlemagne was indeed aware of the coronation; certainly, he cannot have missed the bejewelled crown waiting on the altar when he came to pray – something even contemporary sources support.[89]. He married at least four times and had three legitimate sons who lived to adulthood, but only the youngest of them, Louis the Pious, survived to succeed him. Desiderius sent his own ambassadors denying the pope's charges. The width of the bone suggested he was gracile in body build. 3) Albert SOREL, L'Europe et la Révolution française, republished.Les Introuvables, 2003, t. I, p.246. The Byzantine Empire, based in Constantinople, continued to hold a substantial portion of Italy, with borders not far south of Rome. Between Aquitaine and Hispania were the Euskaldunak, Latinised to Vascones, or Basques,[38] whose country, Vasconia, extended, according to the distributions of place names attributable to the Basques, mainly in the western Pyrenees but also as far south as the upper Ebro River in Spain and as far north as the Garonne River in France. [e], In 687, Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry. The Muslims forced him to retreat. In 1964, young French singer France Gall released the hit song "Sacré Charlemagne" in which the lyrics blame the great king for imposing the burden of compulsory education on French children. It is important to distinguish between the universalist and localist conceptions of the empire, which remain controversial among historians. He wore intricately jeweled swords to banquets or ambassadorial receptions. At a diet near Lippe, he divided the land into missionary districts and himself assisted in several mass baptisms (780). In the ensuing decades, his empire was divided up among his heirs, and by the late 800s, it had dissolved. Charlemagne (English: Charles the Great, German: Karl der Grosse, French: Charles le Grand, Latin: Carolus Magnus, Dutch: Karel de Grote), King of Neustria (768-771), King of the Franks (771-814), King of the Lombards (774-814), and Emperor of the Romans (800-814).He was the eldest son of Pippin III and Bertrada of Laon.. In 777, he called a national diet at Paderborn to integrate Saxony fully into the Frankish kingdom. The question of whether these jurisdictions were joint shares reverting to the other brother if one brother died or were inherited property passed on to the descendants of the brother who died was never definitely settled. On peut citer les marches d'Espagne, les marches saxonnes et bavaroises (pour repousser les Danois), une marche bretonne, une marche de Toulouse, etc. He was in the habit of awaking and rising from bed four or five times during the night. "[160] Winners of the prize include Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, the founder of the pan-European movement, Alcide De Gasperi, and Winston Churchill. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders and fought the Slavs to his north. Derek Baker. Charles' achievements gave a new meaning to his name. Charlemagne & His Empire Queen Goosefoot's Son Charlemagne was born around 742 in Aachen, a city in the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia, located in what is now Germany. As before, distinct jurisdictions were awarded. Charlemagne - Charlemagne - Emperor of the Romans: Charlemagne’s prodigious range of activities during the first 30 years of his reign were prelude to what some contemporaries and many later observers viewed as the culminating event of his reign: his coronation as Roman emperor. However, Louis of Aquitaine marched the entire army of his kingdom over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, when it capitulated. Learn history charlemagne empire with free interactive flashcards. The young prince was chased to the Adriatic littoral and fled to Constantinople to plead for assistance from Constantine V, who was waging war with Bulgaria.[34][63]. Le siège de l'empire de Charlemagne est à Aix-la-Chapelle. Quelles étaient les limites de l'empire d'Alexandre le Grand ? [32] Each, however, had his own geographic jurisdiction. In 808, the king of the Danes, Godfred, expanded the vast Danevirke across the isthmus of Schleswig. [150] He is not enumerated among the 28 saints named "Charles" in the Roman Martyrology. Einhard says that Charlemagne was ignorant of the Pope's intent and did not want any such coronation: [H]e at first had such an aversion that he declared that he would not have set foot in the Church the day that they [the imperial titles] were conferred, although it was a great feast-day, if he could have foreseen the design of the Pope.

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